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The octet rule refers to the tendency of atoms to prefer to have eight electrons in the valence shell (outer orbital). When atoms have fewer than eight electrons, they tend to react and form more stable compounds. When discussing the octet rule, we do not consider d or f electrons.
If the electrodes of the cell are connected to an external circuit, such that electrons have a place to flow from one to the other, lead(IV) atoms in the positive electrode (PbO2) will gain two electrons each to produce Pb(II)O. The oxygen atoms which are “leftover” combine with positively charged hydrogen ions (H)+to form water (H2O).
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May 02, 2019 · Lead compounds have been used for thousands of years as colours in paint. Johannes Vermeer [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons (a) A sample of a red oxide used in paint was found to contain 6.21 g of lead and 0.64 g of oxygen.
The 22 and 2s p5 electrons are the fluorine atom’s valence electrons, the important electrons that we learned about in Section 3.3. Now we can define them more precisely. Valence electrons are the highest-energy s and p electrons in an atom. We saw in Chapter 3 that the number of valence electrons in each atom of a representative element is equal
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electrons are not transferred completely, as occurs in the formation of zinc oxide, and no ions are formed. Nitrogen monoxide is a molecular compound, and the bonds between the nitrogen and the oxygen are covalent bonds, in which electrons are shared. Because the oxygen atoms attract electrons more strongly than nitrogen atoms, there
B. How many electrons does the oxygen atom need to become stable? 2 _____ C. Can a stable compound be made from these two atoms? Explain why or why not. No, a stable compound cannot be made from these two atoms because Lithium only has one valence electron to give, but Oxygen needs two valence electrons to become stable.